Sunday, July 21

Today is Sunday, July 21, the 202nd day of 2013, There are 163 days left in the year.

Highlights in history on this date:

1542 – Pope Paul III establishes the Roman Inquisition to fight Protestantism.

1683 – Lord William Russell is beheaded in England for plotting to kill the king.

1718 – Austria and Venice gain substantial lands in the Balkans from Turkey by the Peace of Passarowitz.

1773 – Pope Clement XIV dissolves Roman Catholic Jesuit order after pressure from anti-clerical countries, but the order is re-established in 1814.

1798 – France’s Napoleon Bonaparte defeats the Egyptians at Battle of the Pyramids and becomes master of Egypt.

1820 – Danish physicist Hans Christian Oersted announces his discovery that an electrical current creates a magnetic field.

1831 – Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg is crowned the first king of newly independent Belgium, prompting the Dutch to invade.

1861 – The Confederate army defeats Union troops at the Battle of Bull Run in the U.S. state of Virginia at the start of the American Civil War.

1873 – Jesse James and his gang pull off the first train robbery in America taking $3,000 from the Rock Island Express in Adair, Iowa.

1920 – Sinn Fein and unions riot in Belfast, Ireland. King Faisal recognizes French mandate in Syria.

1925 – In Dayton, Tennessee, John T. Scopes is convicted of violating state law for teaching Darwin’s theory of evolution. The conviction is later overturned.

1944 – American forces land on Guam during World War II.

1954 – An armistice is signed in Geneva, dividing Vietnam into a communist north and a U.S.-supported south as France surrenders North Vietnam to the Communists.

1959 – U.S. District Court judge in New York City rules that D.H. Lawrence’s famous book “Lady Chatterley’s Lover” is not pornographic.

1960 – Sirimavo Bandaranaike of Ceylon — now Sri Lanka — becomes the world’s first woman prime minister.

1962 – Indian and Chinese troops clash in two disputed areas of Kashmir.

1969 – U.S. Apollo 11 astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin Jr. blast off from Moon and head back to Earth after man’s first lunar landing.

1973 – France explodes nuclear device over South Pacific island despite worldwide protests.

1974 – United States announces that Greece and Turkey agree to cease-fire in war on island of Cyprus.

1975 – Soviet Soyuz spacecraft lands safely in Soviet Central Asia after its rendezvous in space with U.S. Apollo craft.

1989 – Top Communist Party leaders in Soviet Union call for sterner restrictions on the press.

1991 – South African government admits it secretly gave $600,000 in recent years to African National Congress rival Inkatha Party.

1994 – Former dissident author Alexander Solzhenitsyn returns to Moscow 20 years after he was expelled.

1995 – A 16-nation conference in London warns Bosnia’s Serbs that further moves on the U.N. “safe area” of Gorazde will be met with a “substantial and decisive response.”

1998 – Concerned that violence in Kosovo could spill over, the U.N. Security Council decides to add about 300 troops to the 750-strong U.N. peacekeeping force in Macedonia.

2000 – Bolivian drug trafficker, Roberto Suarez Gomez, self-proclaimed “King of Cocaine” dies at age 68. He is believed to be the model for the acclaimed U.S. movie “Scarface.”

2001 – Flash floods triggered by torrential rain and hailstorms leave at least 30 people dead and 100 injured in northwest Iran.

2002 – WorldCom Inc., the second-largest U.S. telecommunications company, files for the largest U.S. bankruptcy ever, a month after disclosing it had inflated cash flow by $3.8 billion.

2003 – The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) reports that so far more than 1,000 Iraqi children had been killed or injured by abandoned weapons and unexploded ordnance.

2004 – Saudi security forces discover the head of American hostage Paul M. Johnson Jr. in a freezer during a raid on a suspected al-Qaida hideout, just days before the expiration of a monthlong amnesty offered to militants.

2005 – Rioters enraged by subsidy cuts clash with security forces for a second day across Yemen, burning cars and buildings and leaving 16 people dead in the country’s worst civil strife in more than a decade.

2006 – Israel moves tanks and troops to its border, calling up reserves and warning civilians to flee Hezbollah-controlled southern Lebanon as it prepares for a likely ground invasion.

2007 – India elects Pratibha Patil as the country’s first female president. The 72-year-old candidate of the governing Congress party received 65.82 percent of the votes, defeating incumbent Vice President Bhairon Singh Shekhawat.

2008 — Radovan Karadzic, a former Bosnian Serb leader and one of the world’s top war crimes fugitives, is arrested in a Belgrade suburb by Serbian security forces.

2009 — An Indian court that heard a stunning confession from the lone surviving gunman in the Mumbai terror attacks puts a gag order on his latest testimony — a message to his handlers in Pakistan and a description of the indoctrination he received before coming to India.

2010 – China’s largest reported oil spill empties beaches along the Yellow Sea as its size doubles, while cleanup efforts include straw mats and frazzled workers with little more than rubber gloves.

2011 — Eurozone leaders agree to a sweeping deal that will grant Greece a massive new bailout — but likely make it the first euro country to default — and radically reshape the currency union’s rescue fund, allowing it to act pre-emptively when crises build up.

2012 __ Syrian rebels make a run on Aleppo in some of the fiercest fighting seen in the country’s largest city, which has been a bastion of support for President Bashar Assad over the course of the 17-month uprising.

Today’s Birthdays:

Saint Philip Neri, Italian churchman (1515-1595); Baron Paul Julius von Reuter, German-born news service pioneer (1816-1899); Ernest Hemingway, U.S. author and Nobel laureate (1899-1961); Marshall McLuhan, Canadian media theorist (1911-1980); Isaac Stern, Russian-born violinist (1920-2001); Don Knotts, U.S. actor (1924-2006); Norman Jewison, Canadian director (1926–); Yusuf Islam (formerly Cat Stevens), British pop singer (1948–); Robin Williams, U.S. actor (1951–); Josh Hartnett, U.S. actor (1978–).

Thought For today:

A good scare is worth more to a man than good advice — Edgar Watson Howe, American editor and author (1853-1937). provides commenting to allow for constructive discussion on the stories we cover. In order to comment here, you acknowledge you have read and agreed to our Terms of Service. Commenters who violate these terms, including use of vulgar language, racial slurs or consistent name calling will be banned. Please be respectful of the opinions of others. If you see an inappropriate comment, please flag it for our moderators to review.

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