Today is Sunday, July 21, the 202nd day of 2013, There are 163 days left in the year.
Highlights in history on this date:
1542 – Pope Paul III establishes the Roman Inquisition to fight Protestantism.
1683 – Lord William Russell is beheaded in England for plotting to kill the king.
1718 – Austria and Venice gain substantial lands in the Balkans from Turkey by the Peace of Passarowitz.
1773 – Pope Clement XIV dissolves Roman Catholic Jesuit order after pressure from anti-clerical countries, but the order is re-established in 1814.
1798 – France’s Napoleon Bonaparte defeats the Egyptians at Battle of the Pyramids and becomes master of Egypt.
1820 – Danish physicist Hans Christian Oersted announces his discovery that an electrical current creates a magnetic field.
1831 – Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg is crowned the first king of newly independent Belgium, prompting the Dutch to invade.
1861 – The Confederate army defeats Union troops at the Battle of Bull Run in the U.S. state of Virginia at the start of the American Civil War.
1873 – Jesse James and his gang pull off the first train robbery in America taking $3,000 from the Rock Island Express in Adair, Iowa.
1920 – Sinn Fein and unions riot in Belfast, Ireland. King Faisal recognizes French mandate in Syria.
1925 – In Dayton, Tennessee, John T. Scopes is convicted of violating state law for teaching Darwin’s theory of evolution. The conviction is later overturned.
1944 – American forces land on Guam during World War II.
1954 – An armistice is signed in Geneva, dividing Vietnam into a communist north and a U.S.-supported south as France surrenders North Vietnam to the Communists.
1959 – U.S. District Court judge in New York City rules that D.H. Lawrence’s famous book “Lady Chatterley’s Lover” is not pornographic.
1960 – Sirimavo Bandaranaike of Ceylon — now Sri Lanka — becomes the world’s first woman prime minister.
1962 – Indian and Chinese troops clash in two disputed areas of Kashmir.
1969 – U.S. Apollo 11 astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin Jr. blast off from Moon and head back to Earth after man’s first lunar landing.
1973 – France explodes nuclear device over South Pacific island despite worldwide protests.
1974 – United States announces that Greece and Turkey agree to cease-fire in war on island of Cyprus.
1975 – Soviet Soyuz spacecraft lands safely in Soviet Central Asia after its rendezvous in space with U.S. Apollo craft.
1989 – Top Communist Party leaders in Soviet Union call for sterner restrictions on the press.
1991 – South African government admits it secretly gave $600,000 in recent years to African National Congress rival Inkatha Party.
1994 – Former dissident author Alexander Solzhenitsyn returns to Moscow 20 years after he was expelled.
1995 – A 16-nation conference in London warns Bosnia’s Serbs that further moves on the U.N. “safe area” of Gorazde will be met with a “substantial and decisive response.”
1998 – Concerned that violence in Kosovo could spill over, the U.N. Security Council decides to add about 300 troops to the 750-strong U.N. peacekeeping force in Macedonia.
2000 – Bolivian drug trafficker, Roberto Suarez Gomez, self-proclaimed “King of Cocaine” dies at age 68. He is believed to be the model for the acclaimed U.S. movie “Scarface.”
2001 – Flash floods triggered by torrential rain and hailstorms leave at least 30 people dead and 100 injured in northwest Iran.
2002 – WorldCom Inc., the second-largest U.S. telecommunications company, files for the largest U.S. bankruptcy ever, a month after disclosing it had inflated cash flow by $3.8 billion.
2003 – The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) reports that so far more than 1,000 Iraqi children had been killed or injured by abandoned weapons and unexploded ordnance.
2004 – Saudi security forces discover the head of American hostage Paul M. Johnson Jr. in a freezer during a raid on a suspected al-Qaida hideout, just days before the expiration of a monthlong amnesty offered to militants.
2005 – Rioters enraged by subsidy cuts clash with security forces for a second day across Yemen, burning cars and buildings and leaving 16 people dead in the country’s worst civil strife in more than a decade.
2006 – Israel moves tanks and troops to its border, calling up reserves and warning civilians to flee Hezbollah-controlled southern Lebanon as it prepares for a likely ground invasion.
2007 – India elects Pratibha Patil as the country’s first female president. The 72-year-old candidate of the governing Congress party received 65.82 percent of the votes, defeating incumbent Vice President Bhairon Singh Shekhawat.
2008 — Radovan Karadzic, a former Bosnian Serb leader and one of the world’s top war crimes fugitives, is arrested in a Belgrade suburb by Serbian security forces.
2009 — An Indian court that heard a stunning confession from the lone surviving gunman in the Mumbai terror attacks puts a gag order on his latest testimony — a message to his handlers in Pakistan and a description of the indoctrination he received before coming to India.
2010 – China’s largest reported oil spill empties beaches along the Yellow Sea as its size doubles, while cleanup efforts include straw mats and frazzled workers with little more than rubber gloves.
2011 — Eurozone leaders agree to a sweeping deal that will grant Greece a massive new bailout — but likely make it the first euro country to default — and radically reshape the currency union’s rescue fund, allowing it to act pre-emptively when crises build up.
2012 __ Syrian rebels make a run on Aleppo in some of the fiercest fighting seen in the country’s largest city, which has been a bastion of support for President Bashar Assad over the course of the 17-month uprising.
Saint Philip Neri, Italian churchman (1515-1595); Baron Paul Julius von Reuter, German-born news service pioneer (1816-1899); Ernest Hemingway, U.S. author and Nobel laureate (1899-1961); Marshall McLuhan, Canadian media theorist (1911-1980); Isaac Stern, Russian-born violinist (1920-2001); Don Knotts, U.S. actor (1924-2006); Norman Jewison, Canadian director (1926–); Yusuf Islam (formerly Cat Stevens), British pop singer (1948–); Robin Williams, U.S. actor (1951–); Josh Hartnett, U.S. actor (1978–).
Thought For today:
A good scare is worth more to a man than good advice — Edgar Watson Howe, American editor and author (1853-1937).